Symbol 
Name of the Symbol 
Meaning 
Example 

= 
Equal sign 
Equality 
10 = 5+5 
≠ 
Not equal sign 
Inequality 
10 ≠ 5 
≅ 
Approximately 
Approximation 
π ≅ 3.14 
> 
Strict inequality 
Greater than 
10 > 9 
< 
Strict inequality 
Less than 
9 < 10 
≥ 
Inequality 
Greater than or equal to 
10 ≥ 9; or p ≥ q 
≤ 
Inequality 
Less than or equal to 
9 ≤ 10; or p ≤ q 
( ) 
paranthesis 
grouped items. need to be calculated first. 
5 x (1 + 2) = 5 x 3 = 15 
[ ] 
brackets 
grouped items. need to be calculated first. 
[ (5 + 1) x (1 + 2)] = 18 
∓ 
plus  minus 
both plus and minus operator 
2 ∓ 1 = 3 or 1 
mod 
modulo 
remainder calculation 
5 mod 2 = 1 
a^{b} 
power 
exponent 
1^{3} = 1 
a^b 
caret 
exponent 
2 ^ 3 = 8 
√a 
square root 
√a . √a = a 
√4 = 2 
^{3}√a 
cube root 
√a . √a . √a = a 
3√8 = 3 
^{4}√a 
n^{th} root 

if n = 3; ^{3}√8 = 2 
‰ 
permille 
1‰ = 1/1000 = 0.1% 
10‰ of 10 = 0.3 
ppm 
permillion 
1ppm = 1/10,00,000 
0.000001 